Glossary Of Terms

[Home] [Feedback] [FAQ]

This glossary is intended to amuse and provide help with the "jargon" used in the hi-tech industry by managers, developers, consultants, marketing types and of course customers. If you disagree with the a specific term or have a better definition, sent it along and I'll include it with your name :o)

The quickest way to find a term is to click on [Edit] above, and then click on [Find] in the menu and then type in a unique word. Alternatively click on one of the links below.

Term Definition
802                                   Stands for the year (1980) and month (Feb) when the IEEE formed a committee to establish standards for LANs. (Pretty much driven by Xerox (Bob Metcalfe) mainly with Intel and DEC.  
802.12 100VG Standardized in IEEE 802.12 100 Mbps fast Ethernet/Token
802.3 CSMA/CD Carrier Detection Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Carrier Detection  (Ethernet)
CS Carrier Sensing  Listen before talking
CD Collision Detecting Listen while talking

Also Carrier detect on modems

802.4 ARCNET      Network Data Link layer protocol
802.5                                                                                                                                                                               Token-ring at 4 or 16Mb/s
ACE       Advanced Computing Environment        AT&T/NCR, Mips, NEC, Olivettie, Pyramid, Siemens, Sony, Tandem, UI & USL  

 ADSP       AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol          Network Session Layer AFP       AppleTalk Filing Protocol                Network Presentation layer AIX       Advanced Interactive Executive         IBM OfficeVision offering ANDF       Architecture-Neutral Distribtuion Format       OSF deliverable, promised for "general avail in 1993" but has been put off apparently in favor of pushing up the DME schedule. No new date has been announced, but one is likely by May '93. USL has jumped ahead an may eclipse OSF in releasing V.4.2 in ANDF. Would allow software developers to port their applications across platforms without using an application binary interface (ABI) which requireds recompiling as an intermediate step in porting. ANI       Automatic Number Identification ANSI       American National Standards Institute APPC       Advanced Program-to-Program Communication - IBM ARP       Address Resolution Protocol (used primarily with IP - Network Layer) ASDS ACCUNET                         Spectrum of Digital Services - most popular fractional T-1 carrier offered by AT&T. Features analog multipoint service; digital multipoint service; end-to-end, 9.6Kbps digital services; VGPL Analog Voice Grade Private Line             Voice conferencing and broadcast polling DDS       DATAPHONE Digital Service           56Kbs and 9.6Kbs. A high quality yet economical transport option ideal for many applications DS1                                 ACCUNET T-1.5 Service at 1.544Mbps only - based on muxing of up to five 9.6Kbps cicuits into a 56Kbps data stream. ASICs       Application-Specific Integrated Circuits ASLIP       Abbreviated SLIP              See SLIP ASN.1       Abstract Syntax Notation 1       OSI presentation layer protocol - ISO standard for encoding information at the presentation layer. Similar to Sun's XDR or Apollo's NIDL, but more general. Useful for describing structures in machine-independent fashion and can accomodate differences in word size, chacter sets, and arithmetic functions. SNMP is written in terms of ASN.1. ASP       AppleTalk Session Protocol          Network Session layer ATM       Asynchronous Transfer Mode        A fast, intelligent hardware switch which can support voice, data, image, and video. Cell-switching (as opposed to packet) technology which replaces variable-length packets now  in use with uniform (53 byte) cells. It promises any-to-any connectivity and networks that scale easily from a few nodes to global deployment. Comgines packet switching's efficient use of bandwith with circuit switchi ng's minimal delays. ATP       AppleTalk Transaction Protocol          Network Transport Layer BAPI Bridge Application Program Interface B-ISDN      Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network BSI       British Standards Intsitute CCITT       Consult. Comt. for Te-phony and Te-graphy      The CCITT acronym is from the French title.) An arm of the International  Telecommunications Union, a United Nations agency. CERN                                European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Geneva, Switzerland and birthplace of the World-Wide Web CIB   Common Information Base        OSI MIB CICS       Customer Information &Control System      IBM, industry leader in on-line transaction-processing (OLTP) applications and  is used by more than 20,000 customers and 36,000 licensees in  more than 90 countries. It is currently available only on IBM platforms, but HP entered an agreement to have it on PA-RISC by  "second half of 1993". CISC       Complex Instruction Set Computer            Well over 100 Instructions (350+) CORBA Common ORB Environment       (final OMG ORB release spec) - dfines an architecture for communicating between objects on different platforms. CMC   Common Messaging Calls CPCS      Carrier Personal Communications Systems      For use outside buildings for wireless communications. Also see U<[>ser]CPS CP/M       Control Program/Monitor               Operating System created by Gary Kildall in the 70's. (Gary died at age 52 on 7/13/94.) CSU       Channel Service Unit              Connects an in-house line to an external digital circuit. It provides no mulitplexing, so you cannot simultaneously have both voice and data transmission over the same line. DAA       Distributed Application Architecture      Defines an OMG compliant object oriented envirnonment. DARPA Dept. of Def. Adv. Research Proj. Agency      TCP/IP protocol suite begins when contract is initiated in 1969. DCE       Distributed Computing Environment      OSF deliverable - Designed to address distributed computing such as interoperability in multivendor networks and application portability. DDP       Datagram Delivery Protocol          AppleTalk Network Layer DHCP       Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol      RFC 1541 Internet standard for the automatic allocation of IP addresses. DLC   Data Link Control DME       Distributed Management Environment       This does for networked system management what DCE does for networked applications. HP has submitted OpenView in cahoots with IBM and others for this. DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service DOMF       Distributed Object Management Facility      HP/SUN ORB. Underlying foundation of our DAA. DPA   Demand Protocol Architecture             HP/3Com protocol to load/unload protocols off the stack DRDA       Distributed. Relational DB Architecture      IBM DSU   Data Service Unit                        Connects an in-house line to an external digital circuit. It provides no mulitplexing, so you cannot simultaneously have both voice and data transmission over the same line. DUA   EES       Escrowed Encryption Standard          Uses the Skipjack algorithm and inculdes the Clipper and Capstone microchips (and Tessera card). A Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) designed by the National Se curity Agency, and approved, despite a stunningly  high percentage anti-EES public comments on the proposal) by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Since the very  day of the announcement of Clipper in 1993, public outcry  against the key "escrow" system has been strong, unwavering and growing rapidly. EtherTalk      Ethernet for Macintoshes ESDI       Enhanced Samll-Device Interface         Managed by the CPU transfer rates of 10-, 15-, or 24Mbps  one controller can handle two drives serial interface through which data/commands must pass generaly up to about 2BG of capacity. FTP   File Transfer Protocol                TCP/IP Application/Presentation layer Government OSI                           Open Systems Interconnection Profile required for OSI products sold to the U.S. Government GSM   Global System for Mobile Messaging   HTML       HyperText HTTP       HyperText Transport Protocol          NCSA Mosaic related - HTTP servers are commonly used for serving hypertext documents, as HTTP is an extremely low-overhead protocol that capitalizes on the fact that navigation information can be embedded in such documents directly and thus the protocol itself doesn't have to support full navigation features like the FTP and Gopher protocols do. ICMP       Internet Control Message Protocol          TCP/IP Network Layer IDE       Integrated Drive Electronics       16-bit parallel interface transfering only data. Cheaper than ESDI medium-range capacity (40-200Mb). Can't perform a physical (low-level) format because it is not a device-level interface. IDP       Internetwork Datagram Protocol          3-Open Network Layer IEC   Inter-Exchange Carrier (AT&T, MCI, Sprint) IETF       Internet Engineering Task Force IMAP      Internet Mail Access Protocol          RFC 1730<[>-33] IMAP4 allows a client to access and manipulate electronic mail messages on a server. This should be viewed as a superset of the POP3. The IMAP4 server listens on TCP port 143. IMAP is definitely an emerging  technology and functionally completely out performs the older POP environment. IMSP Internet Message Support Protocol IP Internet Protocol (TCP/IP - Network Layer) IPX Internetwork Packet eXchange (Novell - Network Layer) ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO International Organization for Standardization (a federation of  national standards bodies such as BSI & ANSI) JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group       The original name of the committee that wrote the standard. Stores full color information: 24 bits/pixel (16 million colors). GIF, the other image format widely used on Usenet, can only store 8 bits/pixel (256 or fewer colors). JPEG is designed for compressing either full-color or gray-scale images of natural, real-world scenes. It works well on photographs, naturalistic artwork, and similar material; not so well on lettering, simple cartoons, or line drawings. JPEG handles only still images, but there is a related standard called MPEG for motion pictures. JPEG is "lossy," meaning that the decompressed image isn't quite the same as the one you started with. (There are lossless image compression algorithms, but JPEG achieves much greater compress ion than is possible with lossless methods.) JPEG is designed to exploit known limitations of the human eye, notably the fact that small color details aren't perceived as well as small details of light-and-dark. Thus, JPEG is intended for compressing images that will be looked at by humans. If you plan to machine-analyze your images, the small errors introduced by JPEG may be a problem for you, even if they are invisible to  the eye. LADDR      Layered Device Driver Architecture      SCSI interface spec to OS/2 available with OS/2 1.3 (but not IBM OS/2 1.3) LCS   Lotus Communication Server          "enterprise-wide mail backbone for Notes and cc:Mail users." Sometimes pronounced "Lex". LDAP       Lightweight Directory Access Protocol      A technology that provides DUAs (X.500) for PCs. LDAP combines a TCP/IP based DUA with an OSI server to allow access to the DSA. Because of the high overhead of OSI service, a full DUA implementation is difficult for the PC platform. LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution Service      Digital wireless, two-way broadband technology. MACH                                Carnegie-Mellon version of UNIX specifically designed for massively parallel systems MADMAN MADMAN MIB - "Mail and Directory Management || Management Information Base" - is a technology for gathering information over a network. MAE      Macintosh Application Environment      A software implementation of Macintosh that runs in an X window on the Series 700 workstations. With it, users will be able to run many Macintosh applications without  modification. MAE integrates Macintosh and UNIX* system-based environments, allowing users to directly  manipulate the UNIX file system from the Macintosh interface, as well as cut and paste both text and graphics between X and Macintosh applications. The MAE architecture also supports workstation devices as well, allowing access to Macintosh-formatted floppies and CD-ROMs from existing workstation drives. MAE runs on HP-UX 9.01 or later and requires an X11 release 4 or later window display driver. MAPI      Messaging Application Prog. Interface      MHS Message Handling System. X.400 series of recommendations of abstract services and protocols used to provide electronic mail services in an OSI networking environment. X.500 is a series of recommendations that provide a distributed, user-friendly subscriber director y to help users address X.400 messages. These services are called simply the Directory. CCITT calls it X.400 - ISO calls it MHS, but they are identical in substance. CCITT calls it X.500 - ISO calls it Directory. MHS       Message Handling Service                 Novell - now supports MS-Mail for Windows MIB Management Information Base - SNMP requests these values  a conceptual database of values on the agent. OSI CIB will eventually replace these. MIME      Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions      Enables multipart/multimedia messages to be sent over the Internet. This standard was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the same people who have fostered many of the slickest new technologies in recent years (SNMP, TCP/IP addons). The standard was completed in january of 1991 and as of august 1992 it is an IETF proposed standard. One of the primary authors is Nathaniel Borenstein of Bellcore in Morristown, New Jersey. MNP       Microcom Network Protocol          Public domain error correction/compression technique used in modems. de facto standard. CCITT official ec/c protocol is LAP-M and V.42vis. SEE V.42 and LAP-M. V.42 is a CCITT standard which includes MNP 3 & 4 as well as LAP-M. MNP   2 character (byte) oriented protocol          Where complete asynch chars are transmitted along with the protocol overhead. 84% throughput. Few modems were ever sold with this h/w based protocol (though it has been used in s/w based applications). MNP   3 bit oriented                      Where asynch chars are converted to a sync data stream (stripping framing bits). 108% throughput. MNP 4 Nearly identical to Class 3 but with slightly more throughput. Flexible block size permit larger blocks during times of lower error activity. Efficiency can be up to about 120%. MNP 5 Includes features of 3 & 4 (required) and also uses data  compresseion techniques to increase throughput. Depending on the type of data, throughput can be up to 200%. MRP       Manufacturing Resource Planning MSDS       Materials Safety Data Sheet MTA       Message Transfer Agents                  Part of the X.400 OSI stack. Responsible for the actual transport of the message between user agents. MTA's typically reside on separate machines. MTS       Message Transfer System                  Part of the OSI stack. User Agents help compose messages and submits them to the MTS. UA also retreives new messages from the MTS. MVS       Multiple Virtual Storage                 IBM operating system for 370 architecture. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NBP                                 NetBIOS Protocol NCP                                 NetWare Core Protocol (Presentation) NCS                                 Remote Procedure Call technology developed at Apollo. It was submitted to the OSF and accepted as part of the OSF DCE NDIS      Network Device Interface Specification      Microsoft/3Com API specifically to provide a common sharable device interface for LAN Manager. A number of other protocol stacks can use NDIS, including most commerc ial TCP/IP packages and Banyon VINES. Also supported for LM, TCP/IP, Novell, DECnet protocols. Novell doesn't currently support the API. Runs on both OS/2 and DOS. Can support as many protocol stacks over an interface as memory can allow. NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System       Developed by IBM and Sytek LM - Presentation/Session 3+ - Session NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface         IBM developed in 1985 when it was assumed that LANs would be segmented into workgroups of 20 to 200 computers and that gateways would be used to connect on LAN segment to other LAN segments or to a mainframe. NetBEUI is optimized for high performance when used in departmental LANs. Non-routable protocol that cannot cross routers, although it can cross bridges and source routing bridges. NetIPC      Network Inter Process Communication     A transport interface to the TCP/UPD/IP network protocol stack. (HP NS services) Net RPC Remote Procedure Call (Vines - Presentation) NFS Network File System - distributed file system from SUN  TCP/IP Application/Presentation NGM NetWare Global Messaging - Novell's server based messaging engine  Set of NetWare NLMs providing a central hub, directory synch.  MHS first, then X.400, SMTP and SNADS later. B-trieve based.  Eventually MS's MAPI and Apple's OCE and the multi-company VIM  messagin interfaces. NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol NS Network Services - HP propriatary networking services including  VT3K, NFT (DSCOPY), NetIPC NT    New Technology                    Microsoft's 32-bit, pre-emptive multitasking kernel OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO ODBC Open Database Connectivity            Microsoft API OL    Open Look                    Sun's GUI OLTP on-line transaction-processing OMG   Object Management Group       A consortium of companies promoting standards for Object management. Located in Framingham, Mass. ONC                                 SUN RPC mechanism ORB   Object Request Broker                  An OMG release (specification) OSF   Open Software Foundation        Based in Cambridge, MA - Deleviered OSF/1 in 1991. Consortium of "members" (DEC, HP). Released DCE in Sep/91,  DME to follow and then ANDF (Architecture-Neutral Distribution Format) OSI   Open Systems Interconnection PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP P1       Message Transfer Protocol                X.400, used in communications between two MTA's P2       Interpersonal Messaging Protocol          X.400, defines the content format of an interpersonal message. Enhanced in the 1988 recommendations and now known as P22. P3       Submission and Delivery Protocol          X.400, is used in communications  between a UA or MS and an MTA. P7 Indirect Submission and Retrieval Protocol - used in communications between a UA and the MS. The P7 Client Interface provides client access to OpenMail over an OSI network. Remote User Agents (clients) written to the P7 protocol (define in X.413 of the 1988 X.400 recommendations) can submit messages to and retrieve messages from the OpenMail message store. The OpenMail message store acts as a NIST and GOSIP conformant enhanced message store. In addition, it provides support for the General Text body part and limited support for the registration of the auto-forward auto-action. PAD   Packet Assemble/Disassembler         X.25 connection device PAL       Privileged Architecture Library           Dec Alpha chip feature which enables non VMS OSs to run on the chip. Will allow NT to run on Alpha chip (after Intel and MIPS). PCMCIA                              Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PCSA      Personal Computing Systems Architecture      DEC's PC network offerings PEP   Packet Exchange Protocol                3+ Transport PERL      Practical Extraction and Report Language       or Pathologically       Eclectic Rubbish Lister) - PEX 3D                              Extension to X endorsed by X Consortium. PEX is the protocol that carries information across the network. PEXlib is the 3D library used by application developers. "cose" participants support PEX. POAT Plain Old ASCII Text POP   Post Office Protocol                RFC 1225 (POP3 - RFC 1725) (Public Domain protocol to read unix environment sendmail type messages?). A simple protocol for client access to a remote  message store. It allows a client to sign on, list the in-box,  read mail from the in-box and delete mail from the in-box. Public domain POP viewers will run on HP-UX. POTS Plain Old Telephone Service PowerPC                             PPCP Archictecture: Technical partnership of Apple, IBM and Motorola which created a new chip. PRO      Precision Risc Organization            9 global computer-tech manufacturers to advance and broaden the use of PA-RISC. Hitachi, Oki, Mitsubishi Prime, Convex, Hughes Aircraft, QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QIC Quarter-Inch Cartridge RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RAID       Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks RAID1, Mirroring of single drives or sets                                     RAID3,4,5, High-level schemes RBOC      Regional Bell Operating Company           Pac Bell, U.W. West, Nynex RDA   Remote Database Access RFC821                                    Simple Message Transport Protocol Aug, 1982. Defined a 7-bit transport. 8-bit is technically a violation of 821. RFC 822                             Standard for Internet Text Messages RFC1425                             Extended SMTP (ESMTP), defined in February 1993 later revised in RFC 1651 in July 1994 RFC1521                             MIME encoding RFC1651                             ESMTP revised definition - July 1994 - The initial extension, known as 8BITMIME (defined in RFC 1652), allows mail transfer  agents (MTAs) to negotiate the transfer of 8-bit data. If a given MTA has an 8-bit message and fails to negotiate an  8BITMIME transfer with a subsequent MTA, RFC 1652 requires that the message be encoded via MIME (defined in RFC 1521), RFC1652                             SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIME transport RIP       Routing Information Protocol          TCP/IP - Network RISC       Reduced Instruction Set Computer            30-100 Instructions (HP PA = 140 - SPARC = 94). Simple instructions allow elimination of microcode. RPC   Remote Procedure Call RTMP       Routing Table Maintenance Protocol       AppleTalk - Transport/Network RTP       Routing Update Protocol                Vines - Transport SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS SSSSSSSS SAA       Systems Application Architecture            IBM Architecture IDE ATA                             Connects only hard disks IDE SCSI                            Connects other peripherals as well SCSI Small Computer Standard Interface         A more general version of IDE                                     Standard SCSI, SCSI, SCSI-2, SE-SCSI, 5MB/s, 8 bit data bus width, 50 pins, 6 meter cable. HP Single-ended disks will actually run at 10MB/s, but the SCSI-2 bus standard restricts operation to 5MB/s                                     Differential SCSI - Fast, Fast/Narrow, Diff-SCSI 10MBytes/s, 8 bits, 50 pin, 25 meters                                     Fast/Wide SCSI - differential-Wide, F/W-SCSI, Fast and Wide - 20 MBytes/s, 16 bits, 68 pin, 25 meters SGML       Structured General Markup Language @Body Single@SLIP       Serial Line Interface Protocol          ASLIP, abbreviated SLIP SMB   Server Message Block             3+, Vines - Presentation SMDS       Switched Multimegabit Data Service      U.S. Bellcore standard  offering high-speed data connection) S/MIME                                    Secure version of MIME. SMIME                               Secure version of MIME. SMP       Symmetric MultiProcessing SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol          TCP/IP Application/Presentation, A protocol used for transmitting messages through the ARPA Internet and local area networks. sendmail imprements both an SMTP receiving agent and an SMTP delivery agent. RFC 821 is the  specification for SMTP. SNMP  Simple Network Management Protocol SONET/SDH Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SPARC      Scalable Processor Architecture            Sun RISC Architecture - Largely a derivative of RISC-II architecture 1982 - U-of-Cal Berkely SPEC Standard Performance Evaluation Corp (as in SPECint, SPECweb, etc) SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol (Vines - Session) SPX Sequenced Packet eXchange (Novell - uses IPX as a delivery  mechanism) Novell - Session/Transport SQE Signal Quality Error - "Heartbeat" or "Collision Presence Signal  test. developed to test the collision-detection circuit within  a transceiver as it operates between that device and a  controller. Used for the Collision detection part of the 802.3  spec. SQL       Structured Query Language SRPI       Server/Requestor Programming Interface SSL   Secure Sockets Layer             Internet Security TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTT T1 1.544 Mb/s - 24 64Kb Channels - ISDN uses 1 channel for  D-channel (which provides *all* signaling). A 56Kb line is  essentially a 64Kb line with 8Kb of signaling bandwidth T3 44.184 Mb/s TCP       Transmission Control Protocol          TCP/IP, Vines - Transport Telnet Internet interactive terminal protocol          TCP/IP - App/Presentation UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUU UA    User Agent                   ALL-IN-1, OfficeVision, Wang OFFICE, and HP  DeskManager are all examples of user agents. UDP   User Datagram Protocol                TCP/IP, Vines - Transport - connectionless protocol - elimates the overhead of a TCP connection. UI    Unix International UNC       Universal Naming Convention        Allows OS/2 ws to access LM and Netware at the same time. UPCS User Personal Communications Systems      Used locally, inside buildings, for wireless communications (also see C<[>arrier]PCS) URL      Uniform Resource Locator                 NCSA Mosaic - Think of it as a networked extension of the standard filename concept: not only can you point to a file in a directory, but that file and that directory can exist on any machine on the network, can be served via any of several different methods, and might not even be something as simple as a file: URLs can also point to queries, documents stored deep within databases, the results of a finger or archie command, or whatever. USL   Unix System Laboratories UUCP Unix to Unix Copy                   A simple store and forward transport protocol with facilities for copying files to remote Unix systems and executing selected commands on the remote system. XNS   Xerox Networking Services          IPX and SPX are based on XNS Transport/Network V.42 CCITT error correction standard which encompasses both choices of  MNP 3 & 4 or LAP-M error correction. V.42bis CCITT data compression standard providing up to 4-1 compression.  Requires LAP-M error correction (V.42 bis is built on LAP-M). VIP Vines Internet Protocol (Network) VIPC Vines Interprocess Communications Protocol (Transport) VUE Visual User Environment  HP's GUI WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW WWWWWWWW WABI Windows Application Binary Interface - a Sun offering  (originally obtained by SunSelect's purcahse of Praxis) enables  users of Unix systems to run Microsoft Corp's Windows 3.1  applications quickly and without modification just by opening a  window on the Unix desktop. WAIS  Wide Area Information System            Mosaic Project headed by Brewster Kahle (of Thinking Machines). WAIS information is part of the WorldWideWeb (W3) by virtue of a gateway . WINS       Windows Internet Naming Sevice            DNS for Windows Domains WOSA Windows Open Services Architecture.     A Definition for how non-MS products (like NetWare) link to NT. Allows third parties to add, for example, messaging, security, file, and print services to the new operating system. WWW      WorldWideWeb (W3)                   Is the universe of network-accesible information, an embodiment of human knowledge. It is an initiative started at CERN, now with many participants. It has a body of software, and a set of protocols and conventions. W3 uses hypertext and multimedia techniques to make the web easy for anyone to roam browse, and contribute to. ZIP   Zone Information Protocol (Appletalk - Session) S-MAPI PPP NNTP                                Network News Transfer Protocol IMSP                                Internet Messaging Service Protocol POP                                 Post Office Protocol LDAP                                Local Directory Access Protocol VIM                                 Vendor Independent Messaging protocol MAPI                                Messaging Application Interface UAL                                 User Agent Layer @Body Single@CMC                                Common Messaging Calls XAPI SMTP                                Simple Message Transfer Protocol SNMP                                Simple Network Management Protocol MISF                                Microsoft Internet Security Framework).



Copyright Mike Wardley, 2009